Mind

3 Examples of Gaslighting

You’re Not Going Crazy: 15 Signs You’re a Victim of Gaslighting ⋆ LonerWolf

The only way you can describe how you feel is that you feel minimized. You feel crushed and smothered. You’re constantly second-guessing yourself; your feelings, your perceptions, your memories, and a small, suffocated part inside of you wonders whether you are actually going crazy.

“3 Examples of Gaslighting

Let’s take a look at some examples of Gaslighting.

In a family scenario:  Andrew’s father is an angry, bitter man.  Every day Andrew is afraid to “tip the balance” of his father’s mood because he often bursts out in fits of rage calling Andrew a “bastard” and a “worthless little loser,” among many other hurtful names.  When Andrew confronts his father about this aggressive name calling, Andrew’s father laughs and tells him “to stop being so sensitive.”

In a relationship scenario:  Jade has been married for 5 years and has two small children with her husband Mike.  For the past few months Jade has been trying to establish a small art shop, but when she asks for her husband’s assistance his mood darkens: “I can’t believe you’re spending so much time on this shop—don’t you care about me—don’t you care about your kids?  You’re supposed to be mothering them!” he exclaims.  Jade is shocked, “But I just wanted you to help me with setting up the store!  And I haven’t been neglecting anyone!”  Mike comes up very close to Jade’s face: “You see!   Now you’re denying it.  When I married you I thought you’d be there for your family.  I should just take the kids and go already!”  Mike storms off.  Later, when Jade sits down to talk with Mike about his threat, Mike says, “Honey, you know you were over reacting, and you know that you’ve been obsessing over this shop too much.  That makes the rest of us feel very ignored and excluded, I hope you understand that.”

At work scenario:  Sophie has been working in her department for the past five years when she is given a promotion to migrate to another level of the company that pays a higher salary.  However, Sophie has been given a trial period to determine whether she is capable of fulfilling her duties or not.  Nervously, she meets with her new supervisor, Kelly. At first, Sophie likes her supervisor and fulfills all of her tasks on time.  However, her supervisor begins to ask her to do belittling chores and favors here and there with increasing frequency.  While Sophie is fine with helping out, she finds that Kelly is becoming more and more demanding.  Finally, as Sophie’s work piles up to an unbearable level, she tells Kelly that she needs to focus on completing her work, but she can help another time.  Later, in a staff meeting, Kelly introduces Sophie to everyone and says, “Although she’s not keeping up with us yet, I’m sure she’ll learn to embody our hard-working ethics soon!”  Immediately, Sophie blushes and feels publicly insulted and humiliated, fearing for the security of her new job.  Later when Sophie asks her supervisor why she thinks that “she is not embodying their hard-working ethic,” her supervisor says: “I think you misunderstood me.  I just said that you’re not used to our pace of work so that other people can help you out.”  From then on Sophie accepts all extra demands and chores, no matter how much work she has, or how demeaning the tasks are.”

Mind

What is Gaslighting?

Gaslighting – Wikipedia

Gaslighting is a form of psychological manipulation that seeks to sow seeds of doubt in a targeted individual or in members of a targeted group, making them question their own memory, perception, and sanity. Using persistent denial, misdirection, contradiction, and lying, it attempts to destabilize the victim and delegitimize the victim’s belief.

 

Mind

Intermittent Reinforcement

Intermittent Reinforcement definition | Psychology Glossary | alleydog.com

Psychology definition for Intermittent Reinforcement in normal everyday language, edited by psychologists, professors and leading students. Help us get better.

“Intermittent Reinforcement

In behaviorism, Intermittent Reinforcement is a conditioning schedule in which a reward or punishment (reinforcement) is not administered every time the desired response is performed. This differs from continuous reinforcement which is when the organism receives the reinforcement every time the desired response is performed. For example, on a continuous reinforcement schedule a mouse who pulls a lever would receive food (reinforcement) every single time it pulled the lever. On an intermittent reinforcement schedule the mouse would only receive food every few times (it is typically random and unpredictable). There is an increased likelihood the desired behavior will continue with intermittent reinforcement conditioning and the behavior lasts longer than continuous reinforcement. Gambling is an example of intermittent reinforcement. You don’t win every time or win the same amount when using a slot machine- this wouldn’t be exciting or fun. The reinforcement is intermittent and causes a positive and euphoric response in the brain that in some circumstances can lead to gambling addiction.”

Mind

Variable-Ratio Reinforcement

“Skinner found that the type of reinforcement which produces the slowest rate of extinction (i.e., people will go on repeating the behavior for the longest time without reinforcement) is variable-ratio reinforcement. The type of reinforcement which has the quickest rate of extinction is continuous reinforcement.”

B.F. Skinner | Operant Conditioning | Simply Psychology

A further important contribution made by Skinner (1951) is the notion of behavior shaping through successive approximation. Skinner argues that the principles of operant conditioning can be used to produce extremely complex behavior if rewards and punishments are delivered in such a way as to encourage move an organism closer and closer to the desired behavior each time.

 

(A) Continuous Reinforcement

An animal/human is positively reinforced every time a specific behavior occurs, e.g., every time a lever is pressed a pellet is delivered, and then food delivery is shut off.

  • Response rate is SLOW
  • Extinction rate is FAST

(B) Fixed Ratio Reinforcement

Behavior is reinforced only after the behavior occurs a specified number of times. e.g., one reinforcement is given after every so many correct responses, e.g., after every 5th response. For example, a child receives a star for every five words spelled correctly.

  • Response rate is FAST
  • Extinction rate is MEDIUM

(C) Fixed Interval Reinforcement

One reinforcement is given after a fixed time interval providing at least one correct response has been made. An example is being paid by the hour. Another example would be every 15 minutes (half hour, hour, etc.) a pellet is delivered (providing at least one lever press has been made) then food delivery is shut off.

  • Response rate is MEDIUM
  • Extinction rate is MEDIUM

(D) Variable Ratio Reinforcement

Behavior is reinforced after an unpredictable number of times. For examples gambling or fishing.

  • Response rate is FAST
  • Extinction rate is SLOW (very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability)

(E) Variable Interval Reinforcement

Providing one correct response has been made, reinforcement is given after an unpredictable amount of time has passed, e.g., on average every 5 minutes. An example is a self-employed person being paid at unpredictable times.

  • Response rate is FAST
  • Extinction rate is SLOW
Mind

Loneliness – What is it?

Loneliness | Psychology Today

What makes us happiest in life? Some people may point to fabulous fame and fortune. Yet hands down, surveys show that friends and family are the real prize. Even though our need to connect is innate, some of us always go home alone.

 

Originally posted 2018-01-07 09:22:12.

Mind

BF Skinner – Operant Conditioning

B.F. Skinner | Operant Conditioning | Simply Psychology

A further important contribution made by Skinner (1951) is the notion of behavior shaping through successive approximation. Skinner argues that the principles of operant conditioning can be used to produce extremely complex behavior if rewards and punishments are delivered in such a way as to encourage move an organism closer and closer to the desired behavior each time.

 

Mind

What is Love Bombing – Dark Psychology

Love bombing – Wikipedia

Love bombing is an attempt to influence a person by demonstrations of attention and affection. It can be used in different ways and can be used for either a positive or negative purpose. Members of the Unification Church of the United States (who reportedly coined the expression) use it to convey a genuine expression of friendship, fellowship, interest, or concern.

Love bombing is an attempt to influence a person by demonstrations of attention and affection. It can be used in different ways and can be used for either a positive or negative purpose. Members of the Unification Church of the United States (who reportedly coined the expression) use it to convey a genuine expression of friendship, fellowship, interest, or concern.[1] Critics of cults use the phrase with the implication that the “love” is feigned and that the practice is psychological manipulation in order to create a feeling of unity within the group against a society perceived as hostile.[2] Psychologists have identified love bombing as a possible part of a cycle of abuse and have warned against it. In 2011 clinical psychologist Oliver James advocated love bombing in his book Love Bombing: Reset Your Child’s Emotional Thermostat, as a means for parents to rectify emotional problems in their children.[3]

Mind

Emotional Manipulation is Emotional Abuse – Dark Psychology

“Emotional manipulation is emotional abuse.  If you are in a relationship with an abuser, no good will come of it.  This person does not value you or respect you or care about your well-being.   Leave the relationship and seek professional counseling if needed. ”   http://psychopathsandlove.com/how-can-you-tell-if-youre-being-manipulated/

Mind

About Covert Emotional Manipulation – What is it?

Psychological manipulation is a type of social influence that aims to change the behavior or perception of others through abusive, deceptive, or underhanded tactics. By advancing the interests of the manipulator, often at another’s expense, such methods could be considered exploitative, abusive, devious, and deceptive.

Covert emotional manipulation occurs when a person who wants to gain power and control over you uses deceptive and underhanded tactics to change your thinking, behavior and perceptions.